ǹԪҡ
“óբعҧعἹ”



ѡҷçͧ
ͧ عҧعἹ
͹ Դ§



 

 

 
 
 

 “ʴ稾ҪԹºй
ǹҵҷҧä”

                                                                                   ó  سҡǧ  


;зؾó˧
;зӷç 㹡кǹҵҷҧäºй
㹾ҪԸպҪɡ
 ѹ ѹҤ ..

(Ҿҡ ӹѡͨ˵觪ҵ)

ҡ͹Ѻʹյ äҤҧӶ鹷ҧäҤӤѭ  
 Ъ դ١ѹѺ¹ҧǹҹúѾѺ֡颺ǹѾӤѭ
֧ҡաҧúҡ¡اظ ѧâͧǢǹѹ˭
Фͧ;зѹʹʧҧͧҧӹҾ
֧§ҾͷѺѧͧ价Ǥ駹͡ҧзѺ
ЫҺŻѲͧ

ǹҵҷҧä ¶֧ Ǣǹ;ҪԸշѴѺҡѵʴ
ҪԹ㹡õҧ ҳ ⢷ ׺ʹظ ѵԹ ֧Ѩغѹ ж繡ʴ稾ҪԹ任СͺþҪԸյҧ ˹㹹鹤 ҪԸպҪɡ


ºй
ºй ¶֧ ʴ稾ҪԹͺйѧҪԸպҪɡ ЪҪѹ
оêЪ蹪к ҡѵʴ稾ҪԹ¢ǹҵҷҧʶä
ҧä ظ ྷҪ [-ྴ--] ʴ稾ҪԹҧʶä
ѧҪǴ Ѻ  ҪѵŢբͤ “稾ǡçͧҪɹó 
[ͧ-- -Ҵ------͹]   ʴ稷çҪҹ ...
¡кǹҵ˹ѧ觾 ʴ稻зѡԳºй”


ѵԹ ˵ؾҪԸպҪɡ稾ҸԺԹ Ǫظ
 [-----Ժ---Թ------ش] خ բͤ
“ѹ ѹҤ ѵԹȡ [Ѵ----Թ-ʡ]  ໹ѹ˹кҷ稾    
ʴ稾ҪԹ¢ǹҵºйªäҪླ”


ʴ稾ҪԹºй¢ǹҵҷҧä ͧ㹾ҪԸպҪɡ طѡҪ
ʴ稾ҪԹͧҡѵ¹Ѻҳ ͡ҡʴ稾ҪԹҧ
¡ “ҵҷҧʶä”  ѧաʴ稾ҪԹҧ ¡ “ҵҷҧä”
 鹷ҧäҤӤѭ蹡ѹ èѴǹ ҵҷҧä ҵ⢷
׺ʹ͡ѹҶ֧¡اظ ا СاѵԹ

ҹͧȨҡ֡ʧ úҹ鵡ҧ§ աû㹢ǹ
ԴԴԹ ʹءʹҹ ֡ 繡ý֡ѧŽվ´蹡ѹ 

ǹҵҷҧä Ǣǹ;ҪԸշѴѺ 㹡ʴ稾ҪԹ
繡ǹͧ 蹡ʴ仹ʡ¾оطҷк  õ͹Ѻٵҹطٵȵҧ лСͺ
㹾ҪԸӤѭҧ ҪԸն¼ҾСԹ  ҪԸպҪɡ 繵

ʴºйҴ¡кǹҵʶä ͡кǹҵҪä ǹ繡ʴʹҹҾ㹡ͧѾ 駡ͧѾСͧѾͧ͢ҡѵҳͧ ҧáբ 
ѧࡵҧ˹觤 èѴǢǹҵʶä ҾԨóҶ֧кǹѾǧ
ͧҡѵзѺзહҹ ͺҧѪŻзѺзҪҹشҹͧǴ
дѺҹЪ鹢ͧҪҹ շ෾Фر  Ǵҹդ·ʴ֧
 ҪҹзѺšäҾآͧԹ ҷʢͧͧ 
ͺ äǴФر ෾ѹҪ蹪кբͧͧ෾ͷԾǵ
觤ͧҡѵзѺҪҹ鹹ͧ  жҨդӤѭٻر¤
ͧҡѵ鹤ͧɳثդر繾˹ҤѺ  ʴ㹷ҧ  ͧ٧ҧ
ҡкǹҪҹҨ繺ѧ ѧá Ѵ⺡   ͧ͡ ͡Թ
ʹͧдѺҧ ǹ繡èͧҾͧǢǹͧͧ
Ѻͧ෾šͧ

͹Ǣǹҵҷҧä ʴʹҹҾͧͧѾ͹ ҡкǹ
лдɰ⢹ٻѵ ѵդͧ ѵ෾ ѵҡͧ³õ
⢹ ٻ ٻ§ ٻԹ ٻѧ ٻԧ ٻر ٻ˧ ٻҤ ʹǡ

ôͷͺ ;зӷç 㹡кǹѾǧоͷ⢹ٻ෾
繾˹Тͧ෾ʹҾ ҷ ˧繾˹ТͧоҹҤ
͹ѹҤҪ繷зѺͧɳФر繾˹Тͧɳش蹡ѹ ǹ⢹ٻԧٻ˹ҹ ؤվ
Ҩҡͧõ  ԧǹ繷͡Ӥѭͧ 觷çǵҤ˹觢ͧɳ
;й³ ǡкǹ͹֧ǡкǹͧ෾çǵҤ˹觢ͧɳ
ԤʹҪӹѡ

 


ѹ ѹҤ ..  èѴǹҵҷҧä ͧ㹾ҪԸպҪɡ طѡҪ
繾Ըͧ ͧѾèѴ;зؾó˧ºҪô԰ 㹧ҹ  
ҪԸʴ稾ҪԹ¼ҾСԹ ¢ǹҵҷҧä ǹ˹觢ͧþҪԸ
Ҫɡ㹡ʴ稾ҪԹºй 觹Ѻ繤áѪ¢ͧкҷ
Ǫŧó Թ෾ҧ

¨Ѵٻǹ;ҪԸ ҹǹ ѧŽվ ҹǹ , Сͺ վ ·
    ͸ ѭҳ     Фͩѵ ͡ ѧ


¡ҧ ӤѭСͺ;з ;зؾó˧ ;з͹ѹҤҪ
 ;з觹³çغóѪŷ ;з๡ҵت ͡ҡͧͧ͡͡ᵧ
ͧ͢ѭҡâǹͧ͡ ͵Ǩ͡͵Ǩ

;з觷 ѺôͧҵԴҹŻ
лгյŻ ͧǤҢͧѧ


. ;зó˧  ҧ㹻Ѫŷ ѪѪŷ µ駪͵зҳ
ͧ稾Ҩѡþô 觡اظ ؾó˧ ;з觪ؾó˧ “ؾó˧” 
˧ͧ繾˹Тͧ෾ҵͧ͢ ѵ ෾ Ѩغѹؾó˧ ҡش֧



. ;з觹³çغó Ѫŷ
  ҧ ¾кҷ稾кҸ
ԾʹപҪ ҶԵ ͧ ҪԸաҭɡ .. ³çغó ¶֧
й³çر ”غó” ¶֧ ر˹Тͧй³ǹ¹ “Ѫŷ ” ʴ
ҧѪŷ Ѩغѹ;зӹ ⢹еŧѡԴͧдѺШ§


. ;з͹ѹҤҪ  ҧѪŷ  á㹡кǹҵҷҧä
ӻѨغѹҧѪŷ 稻     ͹ͧ⢹
з觨ѡٻҹҤ “͹ѹ” ¶֧ ٷԾվѧ˭ з͹֧ҹҤ躹
繷зѺͧѵ˭


. ;з๡ҵت  ҧѪŷ “͹ҵت” ¶֧ ҡªԴʹͧѺ
ٻ⢹ͷŧѡԴͧẺҳǴٻٵ ӹǹҡѴਹ֧ԧҧŻ “ت”
դǡѺҤ繵᷹觾ѧӹҨͺ Фشó  Ѩغѹ

 Һҧ;зͷͧҹͷͧҺͻе˹
ͷҹͤóԹ;Ԧҵ  ٻѵ
лԴ㹴͡Թ͡Ƿͧͤѡ

ͷͧҹͷͧҺ 
ʹҡ÷˹ҷͻе㹢ǹҵҷҧä

ͷҹ ͤóԹ 
ӷѴŧҡú ͹Ӣǹ;ҵҷҧä

͡Թ ͡Ƿͧ 
繪 Ӥѹ ҧ鹤áѪѪŷ ͤʧš駷 Դҧ
Ѻ;ҪԸշ   ӹҡ .. óһСͺ



¹͡ Сͺʹ᫧ Ѻоѹ ӹǹ ͧ
ͧ͡ ʧԹ ŻԹ觪ҵ  ǹ ͡ѯѲ 繼
Ѻͧ觡½վִٻẺҳҪླ

ʹ 
չѹ Ǵ͡кǹ¹͡ ҧդ չ·ù
վŻ׹չ · нվ- ѺҴͧդз

ǹҵҷҧä з͹繶֧ŻѲѹ͡ѡɳⴴ ͪҧѹгյ
Ҿͷդ СèѴٻǹͷẺἹ׺ҳ ;ҪԸչ Сͺ
;зͷ赡ѡҡٻẺҧдѺдһԴͧŧҧԨԵç ж繡ʴ֧͡͡ѡɳҧҹѲླҧ˹觢ͧҵоҡѵçʴк
繷ͧԭ 繷ʡԡêա

ʴ稾ҪԹºй ¢ǹҵҷҧä ѧҡҪԸպҪɡ
դʹͧʴ֧١ѹҧ¡Ѻ¹ ͡ҡЪҪ͡Ϫк
͡ʴѡѡҡѵͧ ѧôҧѲ·ʹҹҪԸҳ
Ѩغѹ§šҹ

 

ҧԧ
зǧѲ.  ҪԸպҪɡ.  ا෾ : Żþ,
“кǹҵҪäླ” [͹Ź] Ҷ֧ҡ : http://th.wikipedia.org (  Ȩԡ¹ )
ͧҪԸպҪɡ.  ا෾ : зǧѲ, .
 “ҪԸպҪɡ طѡҪ ” [͹Ź] Ҷ֧ҡ : https://www.navy.mi.th/index.php
             (  Ȩԡ¹ )
ӹѡҹҧ͡ѡɳͧҵ ӹѡҹѴӹѡ¡Ѱ. ¡´ ҪԸպҪɡ 
            Ҫ (кҷ稾лԹһЪҸԻ л)ʴº
            йþоطѡҪ . ا෾ : Թ, .

 


                                

鹡͹͹ : 蹾鹺ҹͧ
() ·ç

                                                                                    ó  سҡǧ

        
             
         ླ “鹡͹͹”      繻ླբͧ ()      ·ç 駶蹰ҹ
ᶺҤѹͧᶺѧѴྪú Ҫ û     ʹյ繡ҵԾѹ١Ҵ͹
Ҩҡ觫⢧ 㹨ѧѴྪú¤駴¡ѹ á㹻 .. (¡ا)
駵㹪ǧѪŷ 㹻 .. , л ҡ鹡͹仵駶蹰ҹǡ§
Ҫ û ؾó


          ʹյǧ͹ ͹  ѺĴ觡þѡ͹ҧҡĴٷӹҷ ֧
ա蹾鹺ҹҧ 鹡͹͹ ŧǧ 蹤͹ (١ǧ) к       
ᴧ 蹵С 繵Ѩغѹ蹴ѧ٭ ͧҡ觵ͧҡԹ 
价ӧҹѺҧ ǹɵзӧҹçҹصˡ ҹԧҧʹյ

         Ѩغѹա׺ҹླա蹷Ӥѭͧ ੾лླ“鹡͹͹
͹” “͹” ¶֧ ١͹١ǧ “蹡͹” ͡¹١ǧ ʹյ繡
ͧ˹ ҧҡĴٷӹҷҹѹ繡ҳ   - ҹ  
ҹ˹Ѻ "ǧ" ҹ觷ӡýԴ͡˹ͧ͡ Ͷ֧ѹ
͹ 觨ШѴҹԧʹ͹ ˹觨شӧҹ ª¨ǡѹ繡
- ǹ仵ҹҧ ¡ "蹤͹" ¶֧ 蹷ʹ١ǧͧ
ҽª·ʹ١ǧ件١˭ԧ ѹ繡èͧ˭ԧ  ǹ “͹
Ϳ͹᤹ ¶֧ ӵѧŧ᤹е͡͹ѹ֡ Ǩ֧¡ѹ仾ٴ¡ѹ繤  
觷ҹ   ˹ ѡ¼ҹ蹤͹͹᤹ͺء դӡ
"鹤͹͹᤹ 蹼" 蹡͹͹᤹褹  ˵طء
͹͹᤹ҡ͹ͧ ѡ觧ҹѺǡǡѹǹ˭ ֧һླ蹤͹    
繡êѡҾѹͧ   ҧ˹ ͡ҡѧ繡ê˹
觵ҧ͡ѡѹ Ҩ觧ҹѹѡҧѹ   ȡŷ蹤͹ѡ
ǧѧҡ 蹤͹ ҧ Ẻѹԡ ẺԴ͡ѹ        
ѹ ͹仵ҹԴ͡ѹ͹


觡㹡鹡͹

         觡¢ͧ  觡ҧࡧ մդ ͵ ᢹ Դд 
 ǷͧҹռҵѴá¡ "͹" ͨش§ͧ¼仵⾡  Ѵӵ
͹µǨ Ǵ      ѹҧ Ҵ觷  㹡лͧٺ մ
ҹѴ Թ Ѻҧࡧҧࡧ   ¡ “ǧ” ͡ҧࡧ ͨй ǧ
͡ҧࡧ鹡 ҹ ੾Чҹ觧ҹ
              
        觡¢ͧ˭ԧ  ᶺ ¡˭˹Ңǧ亴Ӻҧ ͹        
 ͪ 觨դ ͡¡ ͨպͺ ¡͡ç ѡ交        
 觼Ҷاᵧ ͫ蹵  蹵չ ѨغѹҶاѧʹ ˭ԧբ¹١ǧ
 ѡ͡ҹ 駹С˧Ũ͹ յʹաëѡ     ҹٺ 
ᴴ ͡ѡ ¹١ǧ͹Ǥѡ觵Ǵѧ ҡ¹١ǧ͹֡ѡդ
ͤͪẺҧ Ѻ͹·繤   ѡѴʹյǤ
ҹ㹻Ѩغѹ     ҡǶٻᢹͪҢ 繷֡
ҹ㹪Ե ٧بͧ͡   § 蹡ͼžǧѹԴҡûླ   鹡͹ͧ

ػó㹡鹡͹
          . С͹ ١ǧ
          . ᡹ ᤹ 觨᤹ Դ ᤹ Ѻ ᤹
          . ǧ ҹҹͧ˹˹ҹ ˹ҹҨ¢ǧ
              ǧ˹觤Թ
          . ٧͹ ˹ص բ ˹ʴ ʴ ٧͹˹ -
          . Сͧ׹ ѺѺᢡ ׹Ѻʧҧ
ͧ
          . 鹡͹ ÷٧͹Ң١ǧǡѺ仹͹ҹͧѺзҹ
Ҩբͧҹ§ ¼ѡѺзҹ ѡ˹ҹ͹§
          . 鹡͹ŧ ÷٧͹Ң١ǧѺзҹ繴ǡѺҹͧ
          . 鹡͹ҧ ÷٧͹Ң١ǧ Ѻзҹè ҧѹ 駹͹ҧ
ҹͺdzǧ ͧҡ˹Ҩҡ ҧ ա蹢ѧѴ  Թҧ
Шѡҹ ѧ  鹡͹   ˭ 鹡͹ҧ Ѻ 鹡͹Ѻ


Ը蹤͹
          鹵͹ѧǨշء鹡͹Ҩ鹡͹ ᵡҧѹҡ¹١ǧ 觡鹡͹
ѡ¹١ǧ͹Ǥӡ͹ѹԹ ˹͵͹ ͵͹ҧѹ Ԩҧ 㹡١ǧմѧ
             . èҢ١ǧ ͡Ѻ١ǧ
             . ¹١ǧ "ʹ͹"
             . ᤹觡͹
             . ҹ



          . èҢ١ǧ СѺ١ǧ ª¨лú᤹Թҵ͡ ҡҾǧ١ǧ˹ҢǧʴѺ١ǧѺ˹ҹ ٧͹鹡价ѡͨͧ͢    
ѹ蹡 ҡ繢ǧҧ ٧͹վѹ᤹  㹺dzҹ繢ǧ  觨˹Ңǧ͹Ѻ    
ѡ٧ѡɳ繼ӡҵѴԹ 繷Ѻͧǡ ǧҹٹҧͧǷ
ǧѡɳФҹǡʹͧ ǧѭѡɳ觡þ ʶҹԨǡѺѡѹԧ
ʹءʹҹʹԷʹѹ »Сͺºؤ» ͷ˹ ҵԼ˭
Ѻǧ㹡١ǧ (ǧ͡˹Ǿٴ¡ѹʹ м˭Ǣͧ) ӹҨ㹡õѴԹ
Ҩ١ǧ˹Ңǧ л֡֡㹢ǧ˵ءó੾˹ ÷˹վѹ᤹èҡ繡þõԻླ繡 繡ͻླ
ԹҢ١ǧ㹽٧͹ѡ͢Ѻ       Ѻủ 繡ýҡͽҡ Ҵ¤öҴ ҡӤѡ
зҹ繤      ӹͧ ԹҶ֧dzǧ ǡ͡ҵ͹Ѻѡ


          . ¹١ǧ ͵ʹ͹ ҡ ʹ͹ ѾѺѾ 觼ͧ͡ ˭ԧ
нª ˹ҷ¹١ǧè      ǹԹ Ƿ¹١ǧ Ƿշç Ѻ ء
ʹе͡ Тʹ ֧ռçҤ ǡԴ ǹ    ¹١ǧ ˭ѡӡѺ§ᢡ繡Ԩǹ¨鹡Ѻ˹š˹ ١ǧѹ ١ǧ
ѡѴ紽¨鷹 ʹԹ 紹 ԴʹѡԹ Т˹ѡҷء ¹
˹ⴹ˹ Ϳѹ˹ ˹Ҽҡ ҡյͺ¹ 鹴ԹѺ ˭ԧѡ繽¹͹
ͨ繽ª¡繡ࡳµ ١ǧͧǻҳ ǧᢹ Ѻ١ǧع仢ҧѧ   
л¡͵ŧ١ǧعҽµç  ҡѴ¹蹨¹ ҡѴ¹蹵ͧԹŧ  
¹١ǧѡ ǹ; ѹʧ ҷԵʴ ͹ҷԵ쵡 ֧¹١ǧ
ҳ ӡѴ ǡԡѹ ¹Ѻ աԡ¹ ѺԴ͡ѹ ͽ㴽˹繽ѺӹǹҡҡѹѺ       ¼  ͧⴹѺ š ¹ͧ֡
ѡ繼˹ Ң ԡҢͪ (ִèҢͤ׹ ˵¡ѹҡ觢) ¹١ǧ
դè͡ ӹͧҷʹ             ѧ¨ѹ ҧµҧ¹ ҧٴ͡Ш¹㹡¹
˹ǹ͡¹١ǧ ͢ѺҡѺ٧͹ѡ繤 ͹ѧѡླ
ըй觢Ѻ عҹ 繡ú͡ᶹѺҺҨա蹷ʹءʹҹͤէԵ
ҶøաüԴҴԴ 鹡͹ҧ ˹ҵ ǡ¹١ǧ    
͹Ǥ ҡ繡蹡͹ 蹡͹ŧ¹١ǧѧҡ᤹͹ҹ


         . ᤹лСͺ§᤹§úͧ͡ŧѹ¡ "觡͹" 繡蹡
ͺѹҧ˭ԧ "觡͹" ҡ͹觨¡ "͹" (§觨ѵ) 觡͹繡ͧ
ͻСͺ١ǧҨҡ "" աþٴЪЪѹ  ´͡ ø ø
ʹ˭ԧʹ ѡ쵹ʹ    Ǥ鹨ж١͡ҹҹ鹨§   
˹㴶١͡١¡ͧѺا (¢ͧ) աź餹Ѻ
Фͺǹ鹨Һ դç        ŧǧ蹡ѹ ҡ˹ǹ ¢ͧǨ͹
¡ûԴ͡
          ѧС᤹ ¨ѧ ѧ
             . ᡹ҧ (᤹Թ)
             . ᡹ (᤹)
             . ᡹ (᤹) ŧзشѡɳⴴ蹷ҧԻѭ ҧ¡᡹
                 ŧ
             . ᡹к (᤹к)



ѡɳС᤹
             ͹ա͹͡ᢡ 蹤͢ѺѺԭǹ᤹ͨء 任úͺ
᤹ Ѻͧ "ա" 觡Ѻҷ ҡӡ͡ ѧ᤹ѧ

          . ᡹ҧ ᤹Թ 繨ѧЪ     ǴǴ ͧպ͹觷ͧ͹ӵǢ͹
ǵͧ͹ ᢹ¡ҡ "ᢹ" ٷᢹ¨պǹ    ǻ͡繡ûͧѹ
ǹҡµçѺ᤹ 觤͡   ͧ "ҡ蹡Ҩ˹繵Ҫ"
ͧԭǹա͡ ¹     ѹ ҡӡѺ Ƕҷ þٴ㹻ླաŧǧ
蹡ѹ ͡˹       Ҥ ҡҵͧա͡͡ʡٴҡѧٴ¤ҧ
͹ѺҾٴա ͹ͧ͡㨡ѹ ͡ҡͧŧǡûú͡觺͡سѵ
蹡ѹ 蹺ҹ˹úʹѧ ˹ҹçӴդ͡١
             . ᡹ ᤹ ŧըѧ Ѻѹ ԧ ҪԧѺ    ǡѺѺ
ҳͧͷҧ Ѻѹҳ ͨӵ͹˭ԧѺ仡ѺҪ¡зӷǹ  ˭ԧ
ѴͧҷҧүŻ еѡͪ¼Ҷا ˭ԧǾԺͧͧٻҳǾԺͧ˹ ҡ
١͡ø˹ҧ 蹤ҧ ǾԺվͶ֧ѧ᤹蹡ҷ੾з繼˭ԧ Ѻªͺѧйҡ͡˭ԧʴԻѭ͡
             . ᡹ ᤹ ѧҡ᤹˹Ǩ᤹ 繷ӹͧ¡Ѻ᤹Թըѧشٴ
ѹ㹪ǧŧ ͨѹѧѹ Фѹ˹ҪѹԹͺǧ ͨ¹͹ͧŧعӡѺ
ըѧҷ͹ 㹡áԹ ͺǧǹԡ
             .᡹к ᤹к ӪعǷйԴй͵͹кӢͧû ѧйöѧѹ
¹ѹ 觡͹ŧŧҡҡѡ

         

         . ҹС
               ҹ èͧ繤    ÷˹ٴ¡Ѻ˭ԧ ÷˭ԧ¡Ѻ    ˹駹þٴ㹷ӹͧǾ ҡþٴ¡ѹẺǡѺͧѡ¡""ѧҡ᤹˹һҳ . . ͹ѧ ҡ       鹡͹ŧա§繡ѹҹǧ кҹѹ ÷ҵĴ١ ᡧТ͹ǧ͹ ᡧ´ ᡧ˹ͧ Ǩѡ
͡ ҧդᡧ紻ѡ ᡧС͡  èѴ٧͹ ˹     ѡѺзҹҡ ¡ "Թѹ" С١ǧ ͹ ˹ѡͧ       ˭ԧ  Ѩغѹ١ǧաõʹ͹͹᤹ѹҹ ¡    Ẻ "ླ·ç" "鹷ç"᤹ ͢ѺТѺ "С͹" âѺԡ١ǧ͡ԡӹͧ Ѻзҹ (੾оǡ鹡͹ŧ) ͢ѺТѺủ繡   ѧҡ˹ҭ оҧ俷ͧ״ŧҹ§ѹǧ Ҽ      Դ˹˹ ԩйǤ㴢þٴ¤˹Ңǧж˹ "èҹ˹" ¶֧Ƿ觤áѡǹ      ҧǧǤ¡Ѻ˹ǧҹ    Ӽçҫ  ˹ͧèǤ˹觡ء仹˹Ǥ˹ ˹ҽ٧͹͡ͽª  Ҩк͡سѵա ١    ҡǤ㨨Ф´¡Դҷ˹͡ ˹ҢǧԸա蹹仨úǽ˭ԧ   ҡդ˭ԧդ¡й觤ǡѹ  ˹˹ҽ٧͹ ҷҹ  ¡ѺǹѴ¹ѡ ٨Ե¢ͧǹЪЪ Եآѭҡҧ֧ջҡ

               þٴ¢ͧ˹㹷Ѻͧͧ ҡҡǧԹԴ¹ջҡ  駹Сͺ͹ҡǼԴ ǼԴླ Ҩ繡 ÷ӼԴҧȡ     ֧ǧԹҧȨԴõ駤 ¡ "ҹҧ" ͷͧҧ ҷҧ͡͡ҧемѺԴͺ 觤ԴԴǧ١ǧ зӼԴ㹪ǧ "ҹ" ѧҡ١ǧ¡ѹ ѹԴѡеҾٴ繻Ш㹪ǧŧǧ Դ͡ ҧͺ  դҹҧ֧ 㹤ͺǡ 硷Դҡ١ҹҧѧѺ 繾͡·Ѻ ѧҡ˹Ǿٴ¡ѹ



觷 :

Է سõ. “ླ 鹡͹͹” [͹Ź] Ҷ֧ҡ : http://www.sac.or.th/databases
            (3  չҤ )
þ ѹʧ. 蹡͹: ླա蹢ͧ ѧѴྪú. ԷҹԾԭ
            ҺѳԵ.  ѡٵŻʵҺѳԵ ԷԴ, .
ص ⾸ ЪҾ ѡ.  ¹ԷȹѲ˹ͧç : ҧѹͧѺ
           ླ.  ا෾ : ˨...þкèѳ,
ç ɾѲ. 蹤͹ͧ觷ҧ. û: ʶҺѹԨѲ;ѲҪ  
            ԷԴ, .
ؾ ·.  – ·ç ѵѡɳҧоԸա.  ا෾ : çѵ  
            鹵 ӡѴ, [..].
ҷԵ ⾸շͧ.  蹤͹͹᤹ͧ·ç㹨ѧѴؾó.  ԷҹԾԭ
            ҺѳԵ. ҢԪҴժҵԾѹԷ. Էɵʵ, .


 


 

                                        ؤԨԷ (Digital age) Ѻ Ź 4.0                                      Ѱ áѺ

            Ź 4.0 (Thailand 4.0) ·ȹԧº¢ͧѰ㹡þѲһ蹤 觤 ׹ ѧûѺ¹çҧɰԨẺ ͡üԵԹԧ “ѳ” Եҡŵͺ᷹ “Product-Based Economy” çҧɰԨѺ͹¹ѵ ͡üԵԹԧ “ѵ” 鹤سФԴҧä㹡üԵԹҷмԵѺŵͺ᷹٧ “Value–Based Economy” 觡ûѺ¹çҧҧɰԨѧҹ¶֧¹ŧҧ 3 С÷Ӥѭ
          1. ¹üԵԹԧ “ѳ” Թԧ “ѵ”
          2. ¹þѲһɰԨҤصˡ þѲҴ¡ù෤ Դҧä йѵһѺԴŤ٧ش
          3.¹ҡҤüԵԹ Ҥԡҡ
          ¡͹С Ź 4.0 ͧҡ 1.0 ԧҨҡèѴؤͧûѵصˡ СùǤԴɮշҧõҴǢͧ
          Ź 1.0 ؤɵá ͧҨҡҾҧʵͧ㹾鹷Һл١ Ъҡǹ˭֧Ҫվɵá ͧЪҡǹ˭㹻Ȩ֧Ҩҡɵáѡ
          Ź 2.0 ؤصˡ ͧҡԭҡšѹպҷ աùӷѾҡøҵ ٻҡ çҹصˡԴҡ صˡդѺ͹ çҹͼ çҹٻ
          Ź 3.0 ؤصˡ˹ѡ ԴҡʢͧšѲ ǵҧŧع㹻ҡ աù෤ դѹҡ觢 ҴҢͧСäԴҧä ෤ ͹ѵ ѧִԴѺŢҡ͡Թ ö¡дѺԹդسŤ٧
          Ź 4.0 ֧ؤͧ¹ŧçҧɰԨкͧ 4 ͧСͺ
          1.¹ҡɵẺ (Traditional Farming) 㹻Ѩغѹ ɵ 鹡úèѴ෤ (Smart Farming) ɵáõǤԴͧ繼Сͺ (Entrepreneur)
          2.¹ҡ Traditional SMEs (Traditional Small and Medium Enterprises) ˡԨҴҧТҴẺѰͧ Smart Enterprises Startups ѡҾ٧
          3.¹ҡ Traditional Services աҧŤҤ͹ҧ High Value Services
          4.¹ҡçҹѡеçҹդ Ǫҭ зѡ٧
          ¡ûѺ¹ǤԴ ɮ Сù෤ ֧ѵҧ ŤѺԹ 觹Ѻؤ Ź 3.0 繵ҡդ¹ŧҧҹ෤ա͢ҡҧǡⴴ ¡繡ûѵԷҧԨԷ (Digital Revolution) šؤԨԷ (Digital age) պҷ͡ԵШѹͧҧҡ 觨Ƕ֧㹤ǶѴ...

 

 

ѵصˡ駷 4
http://www.i-am-maker.com/tag/ѵصˡ駷-4/
ѵصˡ 4.0 ԡ “” ˹¹
http://www.bangkokbiznews.com/news/detail/783724
4.0 ͧ 4.0 ?
https://www.esanbiz.com/5935
" 4.0" ҧɰԨ ǢѺѡҹҧ
https://www.thairath.co.th/content/613903
http://marketeer.co.th/archives/89081
Դؤ Digital 1.0-4.0
http://www.wice.co.th/2018/01/11/digital-4-0-technology/
ؤ Digital 4.0 šѺ͹෤
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Revolution
Digital Revolution
https://www.stfc.ac.uk/files/digital-revolution-infographic/
A brief history of the digital revolution
(Ź 4.0 : EP.1 ) ûѵصˡ¨ҡ 1 ֧ 4
https://www.smartsme.co.th/content/56185
4.0 "Thailand 4.0"
https://www.learningstudio.info/thailand-4-0/

 

 
 
 




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